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Sunspot unleashes powerful solar outburst, igniting aurora

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Sunspot unleashes powerful solar outburst, igniting aurora

On June 23, the historic sunspot region that caused the most intense auroras ever recorded in May 2024 made a spectacular comeback with a massive solar flare of the M9.3 class.

However, we have encountered this hyperactive sunspot before. Sunspot AR3723 is a reincarnation of AR3697 and AR3664, the former of which caused the massive G5 geomagnetic storm that set off spectacular auroras all around the globe.

On average, the sun takes 27 days to complete one revolution around the Earth. This means that we can observe an active zone for about two weeks before the planet moves westward of the sun. Since it has been historically impossible to follow an active region around the sun’s back, any newly formed active regions that rotate onto the sun’s eastern edge are assigned a new active region number.

Sunspot unleashes powerful solar outburst, igniting aurora

For the third time ever, the sunspot zone is crossing Earth’s surface, but what does this hyperactive area have in store for us?

Even if the sunspot region is much smaller than it was before, the magnetic composition of the sunspot zone still causes strong solar flares. A strong solar flare of the M9.3 class was released a few days ago on June 23. It reached its peak at 9:01 a.m. EDT (1301 GMT). An X-flare, the strongest kind of solar flare, was the next most powerful classification for the eruption.

“How close and yet so far!” M9.7 flare, which is barely 3% short of an X flare, was just produced by a fresh sunspot patch on the SE limb. In a post on X, solar scientist Keith Strong wrote…

Moderate shortwave radio blackouts occurred across Western Europe and Africa as a result of the solar flare. Because of the intense UV radiation and powerful X-ray pulses released during solar flare eruptions, radio blackouts like these are common following severe flare outbursts. As it approaches Earth at the speed of light, the radiation ionizes (adds an electrical charge to) the upper atmosphere.

To facilitate communication over great distances, ionization makes the environment more congested for high-frequency shortwave radio waves to traverse. When radio waves hit electrons in ionized layers, they lose energy because they collide with them more often. This can cause radio signals to be weakened or absorbed entirely.

Sunspot unleashes powerful solar outburst, igniting aurora

A strong solar flare has once again announced the presence of the historic sunspot region, suggesting that it is something of a habituality. Radio blackouts in Eastern and Western Europe were caused by an X-class solar flare that was released when the area was previously visible as AR3697.

In its previous rotation as AR3697, this region generated 28 M-class flares and 6 X-class flares, thus scientists will be closely monitoring it. As the sunspot region turns to face Earth, aurora chasers will be hoping for a burst of solar activity in the days ahead.

Solar storm-causing sunspot:

A big sunspot that created widespread auroras last month is returning to Earth.

The AR3723 sunspot, originally AR3697 and AR 3664, caused a G5 geomagnetic storm in May, the highest category.

The solar storm caused Northern Lights sightings in the UK and dozens of US states. For the first time in 20 years, some portions of France saw the heavenly display.

The returning sunspot may cause comparable auroras, but astronomers say the Sun is approaching its solar maximum, making such events more likely.

Sunspot unleashes powerful solar outburst, igniting aurora

Geomagnetic activity peaks when the Sun’s north and south poles flip, with the previous solar maximum in April 2014.

No one will know for sure when the next solar maximum will occur until after it has happened, but space weather experts are presently putting the date anywhere between now and early 2026.

“Any moment now, a solar storm might occur. University of Bradford professor of visual computing and founder of the Space Weather Prediction Group Rami Qahwaji noted that the most powerful solar storms usually occur weeks to years after the sun reaches its greatest power.

“The number of sunspots and their potential locations near the Sun’s equator increase with each passing solar cycle. Additionally, there is a higher probability that coronal mass ejections will be directed towards Earth instead of into space.

The return of another G5 geomagnetic storm has the potential to bring with it the simultaneous appearance of auroras and the extensive interference with power grids, satellites, and other spacecraft.

Sunspot unleashes powerful solar outburst, igniting aurora

Communications systems may also be affected by such severe storms, according to the Space Weather Prediction Center of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The organization issued a warning that “some grid systems may experience complete collapse or blackouts,” as well as threats to high-frequency radio propagation, satellite navigation, and low-frequency radio navigation. They predicted that these issues might last for one to two days, degrade for days, and stay out for hours, respectively.

Shortwave radio blackouts occurred across Western Europe and West Africa on 23 June due to a solar flare that was emitted by the returning AR3723 sunspot, according to NOAA.

 

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NASA’s VIPER Project Ended, Moon Exploration to Proceed Unabated

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NASA's VIPER Project Ended, Moon Exploration to Proceed Unabated

Following internal studies, on Wednesday, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA announced that it was pulling out the plug on the VIPER: Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover project.

NASA said that they were pulling out of the project because of increasing costs, even to fund the launch and the probability that they will again rise in the future. Originally the rover was expected to be launched in late 2023, however, in 2022, NASA requested for the launch to be delayed to late 2024 to allow for more tests on the Astrobotic lander before being sent to space.

Subsequently, further extension of the plan and the supply chain has expanded VIPER’s readiness to September 2025. Its CLPS (Commercial Lunar Payload Services) launch on Astrobotic’s Griffin lunar lander has equally been rescheduled to the same date. Continued running of VIPER would be slightly more expensive and consequently, other CLPS operations must be halted or slowed down. NASA has informed Congress of this and whatever the agency has planned.

NASA's VIPER Project Ended, Moon Exploration to Proceed Unabated

Nicola Fox who serves as the CLPS programme’s associate administrator added on the topic saying, “I affirm that we are dedicated to analysing and advancing the Moon for the common advantage of humankind.” Fox does work in NASA’S WHQ in Washington D.C. “Over the subsequent five years, NASA has closepaced plans for a number of missions searching for ice and other resources on the Moon.

Unfortunately, VIPER will be disassembled and its instruments and components will be used in further Moon missions planned by NASA. Before disassembling the VIPER rover system, NASA will review interest letters from U. S businesses and Foreign partners for the free use of the system by Thursday August 1. Further details should be addressed to the IT department through the email, HQ-CLPS-Payload@mail. nasa. at the Office for Civil Rights’ Web site, , www. theoralhealth. gov, after 10 a. m. EDT on Thursday, July 18. The construction and development of the project will be continued systematically until spring 2025.

Astrobotic seems to remain busy on Griffin Mission one since it has signed a contract to do so with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The plan for no earlier than the start of the fall semester 2025 is as follows. The landing of Griffin lander and its engines along with other movement will be depicted during landing in the absence of VIPER.

NASA will have to find other means of performing many of VIPER’s tasks and assure that there is indeed ice at the South Pole of the moon. The next CLPS delivery is the Polar Resources Ice Mining Experiment-1 (PRIME-1), which will target the landing at the south pole in the fourth quarter of the year 2024. It will look for water ice and demonstrate the utilization of resources by employing a drill and a mass spectrometer to know how creditable the substances subsurface are.

NASA's VIPER Project Ended, Moon Exploration to Proceed Unabated

Future equipment on the NASA crewed missions such as the Lunar Terrain Vehicle will also enable mobility as well as observing volatiles in the south polar area. It will also allow astronauts’ trips to the permanently shadowed areas of the Moon for sample return missions. Also, replicas of three out of the four instruments of VIPER will be employed during various flights for future lunar touchdown.

The VIPER rover was designed for searching ice and other variant sources on the Moon. This was done to support NASA’s focused on the Moon’s observation and decision on some of the major mysteries in our solar system. NASA is now able to go further across the Moon than before with cooperating astronauts, smart robotics, U. S. commercial providers, and counterparts with the help of its lunar projects, Artemis human missions, and CLPS.

NASA spent $450 million on the Viper Moon Rover :

Deputy administrator of NASA’s science mission directorate, Nicola Fox said at a news conference, I want to stress that today’s decisions are not easy to make. They are not made for fun. We spent a lot of time thinking about how to proceed further.

Further to these setbacks, VIPER was planned to be cancelled next, and this is tasks to NASA science work.

NASA's VIPER Project Ended, Moon Exploration to Proceed Unabated

The idea of returning rocks and soil samples from Mars to Earth has become progressively costly, and hence NASA is searching for new means of working that will not be as costly. That is why the mission for the robotic project Europa Clipper that is designed for studying a moon of Jupiter that has an ocean under the layer of the ice, can be delayed because of problems with some electronic components.

It also arises that many missions adopted by NASA tend to take longer or cost more than initially estimated; however, the agency continues to proceed with them, which in turn, pushes the achievement of other objectives into the future. However, large budget augmentations from the congress possibly would not be possible for NASA in the coming few years and therefore, the authorities at the agency came to an understanding that it was beneficial to let go of VIPER.

NASA had up to June expended $450 million in VIPER. To be specific the deputy associate administrator for exploration in the science office Joel Kearns said that the spacecraft is already complete and all the science instruments are rigged. However the rover has not been thoroughly tested to ascertain whether it is capable of endured the rough environment out of space and shaking of launching a rocket.

NASA would not have to contribute money to complete the tests or operate the rover on the moon, so at least $84 million would be saved if the procedure was delayed, Dr. Kearns stated. But not nearly as quick, Dr. Fox stated that most of the goals that VIPER has set can be achieved by other missions.

NASA is interested in disassembling VIPER so that the tools and other components can be utilized in other space endeavors. However, NASA stated it would welcome suggestions from American companies or foreign collaborators on how to employ the VIPER system as it is being proposed, under the condition that the people’s federal government would not have to spend a single additional dollar.

NASA hired Astrobotic Technology of Pittsburgh to take VIPER to the moon, which added to the cost of making the rover. Astrobotic will still get $323 million from the government to go ahead with that task.

And even without the rover and its scientific tools, Dr. Kearns said, a good test of the Griffin lander would still be useful.

VIPER was supposed to start in late 2023 at first. NASA then asked Astrobotic to test Griffin some more, which pushed back the launch date to the end of this year. But VIPER and Griffin would not have been ready to go until at least September of next year because of problems in the manufacturing supply chain that are still being fixed after the COVID outbreak and other reasons.

NASA's VIPER Project Ended, Moon Exploration to Proceed Unabated

For Dr. Fox, NASA was also afraid that the project might not be ready even then, and that any more delays would make the cost go up even more. It was decided by Dr. Kearns that NASA would not replace VIPER with other research payloads because that would mean renegotiating the fixed-price contract with Astrobotic.

Late last month Astrobotic kept on with the lunar lander mission that it launched in January and delivered a piece of lunar equipment called Peregrine for NASA. The mission did not achieve much besides a very short flight and the lander never even reached the moon. This year, other moonlanders have been more successful, or maybe it is just that you have had more bad luck. For instance, a company from the United States that operates for NASA known as Intuitive Machines released one in February, but it fell over on the surface of the moon.

Dr. Kearns said that they could explain to Astrobotic that Griffin was available to other people for rent.

It should be noted that our mass simulator can be shrunk such that the total mass remains constant if they desire to carry yet more commercial payloads, he said.

Dr. Fox said that the leadership of the NASL and the congressional groups, which make budgetary arrangements for NASA, had been informed by NASA that the plan was going to be abandoned. If Congress instructed NASA to proceed with VIPER, then any other lunar missions must be down-scaled to a lesser extent.

‘It was a decision taken with respect to the budget in a rather constrained financial environment as Dr. Fox pointed out.’

 

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READ MORE :- NASA estimates meteor entered atmosphere, disintegrated above NYC.

 

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NASA estimates meteor entered atmosphere, disintegrated above NYC.

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NASA estimates meteor entered atmosphere, disintegrated above NYC.

Some portions of the New York City as well as part of northern New Jersey reported to have heard a loud boom. Could climactic change be attributed to meteor in such a weather condition?

Residents of Staten Island, Brooklyn, and Queens reported that they heard a loud noise on Tuesday in the morning, and the officials of New York City began to investigate. Of this there were stories like this , although not in New Jersey.

SAMHSA issued a report to the New York City Emergency Management Department. They said that they believed a meteor shower occurred when a meteor reportedly, exploded in the stratosphere above the New York City metropolitan area earlier on Tuesday.

To the best of our knowledge now, the meteor crossed over the ‘Statue of Liberty’ and exploded in the air over central Manhattan. It never created any meteors Related: Louis Vuitton was created in 1854 and has since become world renowned for it luxury goods.

On the same, Emergency Management states that to their knowledge, there have been no deaths or losses resulting from this event.

Population of the three state area reported that they experienced a sensation of their house shaking or heard a loud sound on Tuesday morning and due to this a huge question arose. Of a suggestion that some claimed to have seen a fireball moving across the sky, possibly between 10 a. m. and noon, NASA believes that a meteor could have flown through that area, and that is why some people saw it. NASA explained that that the shaking or boom that people felt may be a result of military activity going on concurrently in the region. At around 11: 15 o’clock social network users complained that they felt they were actually trembling like in an earthquake, one another stated that she heard the thunder. Some of the stories referred to areas in Brooklyn, Queens, and northern New Jersey. Yes, on the American Meteor Society website, there are roughly 20 fireball reports in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut within the said period. There were also reportage in Delaware, in Pennsylvania and in Maryland. Due to the reports, NASA said that they were able to estimate where the meteor was heading, although the estimation was ‘very crude’. NASA stated the fireball when sighted flying at about 34,000 miles per hour over New York Harbor was incoming at a steep angle. The space agency said it estimated the meteor flew over the Statue of Liberty, before disintegrating 29 miles above midtown Manhattan.

Out of the AMATEUR meteor hunters, the American Meteor Society noted up to 20 possible sightings of the meteor within the time frame of 11:16 a. m to 11:20 a. m.

Where there is new information about the loud boom, Lee Goldberg seems to know it.

Using this information, it establishes that a fireball was first identified 49 miles above Upper Bay, an area that is to the east of Greenville Yard. Bill Cooke, the head of NASA’s Meteoroid Environments Office added that the meteor struck at a steep 18 degrees from vertically and from the south, passing over the statue of liberty before fragmenting thirty-two kilometers above midtown Manhattan.

The chief meteorologist, Lee Goldberg added that it is possible that the heat and high temperatures could have helped the sound get farther.

Tuesday morning was characterized by a small inversion, hence there was an increase in temperature with altitude. But that may have assisted in taking the sound further. One can easily agree to the fact that sound waves travel at a faster rate through warm air than through cold air. This can make sounds stronger, With amplitude modulation, sounds can be made stronger and it is somewhat difficult to produce weak sounds at the output.

Population of the three state area reported that they experienced a sensation of their house shaking or heard a loud sound on Tuesday morning and due to this a huge question arose. Of a suggestion that some claimed to have seen a fireball moving across the sky, possibly between 10 a. m. and noon, NASA believes that a meteor could have flown through that area, and that is why some people saw it. NASA explained that that the shaking or boom that people felt may be a result of military activity going on concurrently in the region. At around 11: 15 o’clock social network users complained that they felt they were actually trembling like in an earthquake, one another stated that she heard the thunder. Some of the stories referred to areas in Brooklyn, Queens, and northern New Jersey. Yes, on the American Meteor Society website, there are roughly 20 fireball reports in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut within the said period. There were also reportage in Delaware, in Pennsylvania and in Maryland. Due to the reports, NASA said that they were able to estimate where the meteor was heading, although the estimation was ‘very crude’. NASA stated the fireball when sighted flying at about 34,000 miles per hour over New York Harbor was incoming at a steep angle. The space agency said it estimated the meteor flew over the Statue of Liberty, before disintegrating 29 miles above midtown Manhattan.

“It was long and really, really fast,” he noted. “It looked like a flaming, long rod or something on fire and flying through the sky.”

A NASA meteorologist named Bill Cooke said the fireball was a small rocket that was about a foot across and moving at 34,000 miles per hour.

“Something when it’s moving that fast it heats up,” he noted. “You expect to see meteors at night not during the day, so this was a rare daylight fireball.”

Cooke said that it’s not fully clear if the loud booms people heard when they saw the fireball were caused by the fireball itself or by military activities going on in New Jersey at the same time.

“So, if the fireball produced a boom it’s kind of lost in all the stuff generated by military activity to your south,” he added.

Steven Bradley, from Park Ridge, said he heard the boom.

“Then, less than a second after that, there was a tremble of the house as if something had hit my roof,” said he.

Bradley said that the noise and shaking scared his pets.

“The golden retriever jumped out of his skin and the cat just darted under the sofa,” he shared.

Most likely, the meteor went over Manhattan and the Statue of Liberty :

Population of the three state area reported that they experienced a sensation of their house shaking or heard a loud sound on Tuesday morning and due to this a huge question arose.

Of a suggestion that some claimed to have seen a fireball moving across the sky, possibly between 10 a. m. and noon, NASA believes that a meteor could have flown through that area, and that is why some people saw it. NASA explained that that the shaking or boom that people felt may be a result of military activity going on concurrently in the region.

Most likely, the meteor went over Manhattan and the Statue of Liberty :

At around 11: 15 o’clock social network users complained that they felt they were actually trembling like in an earthquake, one another stated that she heard the thunder. Some of the stories referred to areas in Brooklyn, Queens, and northern New Jersey.

Yes, on the American Meteor Society website, there are roughly 20 fireball reports in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut within the said period. There were also reportage in Delaware, in Pennsylvania and in Maryland.

Due to the reports, NASA said that they were able to estimate where the meteor was heading, although the estimation was ‘very crude’. NASA stated the fireball when sighted flying at about 34,000 miles per hour over New York Harbor was incoming at a steep angle. The space agency said it estimated the meteor flew over the Statue of Liberty, before disintegrating 29 miles above midtown Manhattan.

Most likely, the meteor went over Manhattan and the Statue of Liberty :

Finally the NBC New York time phoned the Defense department to know if there was any military exercise/planes that could have been the cause. Trying to explain the above-mentioned statements, a Pentagon press officer claim that they had no idea of something that could be behind them. That’s what the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) told NBC New York: they were not perceiving any move that could elicit understanding of how the people felt.

NASA said “There are reports of military in the vicinity around the time of the fireball which might have caused the shaking and the sound felt by some people and relayed to the media.”

When NBC New York asked the FAA you might have heard some sonic booms the FAA said they are probably from the military planes and redirected NBC New York to talk to the military.

NASA goes further to state that what it has provided is not conclusive and final and states that it is still collecting more information and still verifying some of the reports.

 

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READ MORE :- The James Webb Space Telescope’s stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

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The James Webb Space Telescope’s stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

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NASA shared an excellent new photo of two galaxies merging on Friday to mark the second anniversary of the James Webb Space Telescope’s first use.

The telescope, which become launched on December 25, 2021, has modified technological know-how by means of taking beautiful pictures that assist scientists figure out a number of the universe’s mysteries.

NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency all worked together to build the James Webb Space Telescope. The Hubble Space Telescope goes around the Earth, however Webb is going across the sun approximately one million miles far from Earth.

The photograph that came out on Friday indicates two galaxies combining. They are known as “the Penguin and the Egg” and are part of Arp 142. The “Penguin” is the skewed spiral galaxy in the center that looks as if a penguin, and the “Egg” is the circular galaxy above it. The “Penguin” and the “Egg” are idea to be approximately a hundred,000 mild years aside, which is a completely brief amount of time within the grand scheme of factors.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

Arp 142 is inside the constellation Hydra, 326 million mild years away from Earth. NASA says that the two galaxies first met among 25 and seventy five million years in the past. They will meet again and again earlier than becoming a member of into a single galaxy in 100 million years.

Webb’s picture is full of far flung galaxies if you have a look at the background for a second. Some appear like spirals or ovals, while others are spread out like shapeless dots. Because of how sensitive and clear the telescope’s infrared gadgets are, that is viable.

Webb, that is sometimes known as a “time gadget,” studies each a part of the beyond of the universe, from the first brilliant lights after the Big Bang to how our solar gadget has modified through the years.

Mark Clampin, director of the astrophysics department at NASA’s headquarters in Washington, D.C., told CBS News, “We surely understand and are beginning to get new information on how the first actual galaxies fashioned and developed within the universe.”

He said that Webb “can really see internal those massive dirt clouds and start to examine stars as they’re being fashioned,” which isn’t the same as Hubble.

This shall we scientists observe how those stars exchange over the years and the way planets shape around them.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

“After that, of direction, we need to learn greater about exoplanets,” Clampin said, regarding planets out of doors of our sun system. “And then we will begin seeking out symptoms that they is probably habitable.”

Since it was released, Webb has been looking at worlds that might be livable. As of now, NASA knows of approximately 30 planets that may be “small, rocky planets like Earth that orbit within the livable region.”

Photos show galaxies that are tangled up like a “penguin and egg.”

The image, which shows a couple of intertwined galaxies called Arp 142 and additionally referred to as the Penguin and the Egg, was released by using NASA on Friday to mark years of technology results from the telescope. The first is an irregular galaxy and the second one is a spiral galaxy.

NASA said in a information launch that the “dance” of the galaxies pulled at the Penguin’s smaller areas of gas and dust, making them crash into each different in waves and shape stars. “Look for those spots in two places: the “tail” that looks as if a fish and the “beak” that seems like a fish.

Astronomers had notion that the Webb telescope might be capable of do the whole thing they had hoped it’d. It has regarded deeper into space and similarly returned in time than any other telescope. It has also made a few quite photographs. Webb’s replicate and set of gadgets display that the world is stunning, vibrant, and showy. These close-up pics display how sharp the Webb telescope is. It is NASA’s $10 billion replacement for the Hubble Space Telescope, which continues to be operating.

But the principle cause Webb exists is to do something that Hubble cannot: it may look very a long way into the infrared part of the spectrum. This shall we scientists study the very crimson-shifted mild that galaxies gave off when the universe was very young.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

That has brought about a massive surprise. Astronomers thought that the primary galaxies could be small and tough to look. The Webb did no longer see that.

There is as a substitute a big range of big, brilliant galaxies, many of which contain supermassive black holes, that commenced giving off light no longer long after the massive bang, about three hundred million years. It is concept to be 13.8 billion years old, which is the first-rate wager. Theorists had incorrect thoughts about how speedy stars shape and how galaxies come collectively. The procedures had been either faster, greater green, or just extraordinary.

So that is how technological know-how should work: a brand new device with a clean view of nature brings hard records to places wherein there have been most effective thoughts, theories, and computer models earlier than.

“Understanding the first billion years is the maximum crucial component we’ve got done up to now.” “That became the elevator pitch to sell the telescope, and I’m proud of the way properly we’ve got done,” stated Jane Rigby, the Webb’s top scientist. “The universe labored collectively.”

Webb scientists are short to point out that the reality that there are numerous huge, brilliant galaxies at the beginning of the universe does not suggest that the Big Bang Theory is incorrect.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

“There’s a lot statistics and such a lot of exciting things to discover, and we do not pretty understand why,” Amber Straughn, a scientist at NASA, stated. She said this wasn’t the locating of “new physics” or whatever so essential, although.

Straughn stated, “The Big Bang remains the excellent theory we’ve of the way the universe works.”

The Webb has additionally looked at the universe close by. For instance, it has visible the exciting Trappist-1 planetary gadget, which is made from many rocky planets orbiting a crimson dwarf megastar. It takes approximately forty one mild-years to journey to this solar system, that is in our galaxy and pretty a whole lot proper next door within the grand scheme of factors.

Astrobiologists are nevertheless trying to figure out if red dwarf stars are too stormy for close by planets to keep their atmospheres and appear like excellent locations for life to develop. The Webb could assist solution this query.

 

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READ MORE :- James Webb Telescope Finds Smelly Atmosphere on Nearby Hot Planet

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