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Webb Telescope Shows Quasar-Galaxy Merger in Deep Universe

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An enchanting cosmic event—a quasar-galaxy merger situated deep within the universe—has been photographed by the James Webb Space Telescope, marking a revolutionary finding. Astronomers have a unique opportunity to study the dynamic dynamics that impact galaxy formation and cosmic history thanks to this astounding discovery.

There has been a stunning cosmic dance between the quasar, a glowing phenomenon driven by a supermassive black hole, and the galaxy, a huge collection of stars, gas, and dust. A galaxy’s structure and expansion over cosmic timescales are both affected by these mergers, which are crucial events in the galaxy’s life cycle because they induce star formation bursts.

Thrilled by the discoveries, lead scientist Dr. Astrid Lee of the Webb Telescope project said, “This merger represents a snapshot of the universe’s history, revealing how galaxies and their central black holes interact and co-evolve over billions of years.”

A quasar in the PJ308-21 system and two massive satellite galaxies in the distant universe were observed in a dramatic interaction by an international research group headed by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) and including 34 research institutes and universities from across the globe using the Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

Webb Telescope Shows Quasar-Galaxy Merger in Deep Universe

The observations, which took place in September 2022, revealed astonishing new information about the formation of galaxies in the early cosmos. Soon, the findings will be published in Astronomy & Astrophysics; they were presented on July 5 at the European Astronomical Society (EAS) 2024) meeting in Padua, Italy.

Data of sensational quality have been revealed by observations of this quasar, which the same authors have already described in another study published last May. The quasar was one of the first to be studied with NIRSpec at a redshift of 6.2342, when the universe was less than a billion years old. The instrument “captured” the quasar’s spectrum with an uncertainty of less than 1% per pixel.

The host galaxy of PJ308-21 displays photoionization and high metallicity, which are features of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In contrast, one of the satellite galaxies shows photoionization caused by star formation and low metallicity. The second satellite galaxy, which is partially photoionized by the quasar, has higher metallicity.

The supermassive black hole’s mass, around 2 billion solar masses, has been determined by astronomers thanks to the finding. It was also proven that the quasar and its neighboring galaxies are constantly expanding, massive, and heavily enriched in metals.

The finding has a revolutionary impact because of the tremendous implications it has for our knowledge of cosmic history and the chemical evolution of galaxies.

The article’s first author, Roberto Decarli, a researcher at INAF in Bologna, says, “Our study reveals that both the black holes at the center of high-redshift quasars and the galaxies that host them undergo extremely efficient and tumultuous growth already in the first billion years of cosmic history, aided by the rich galactic environment in which these sources form.”

Program 1554, one of nine initiatives led by Italians for the first JWST observation cycle, collected the data in September 2022. This effort, headed by Decarli, aims to study the merger of the quasar host galaxy (PJ308-21) and two of its satellite galaxies.

As a result of the expansion of the cosmos, the entire optical band in the source rest frame was moved towards the infrared, and this shifted spectrum can be seen for every image pixel during the observations conducted in integral field spectroscopic mode. Because of this, a 3D method can be used to examine different gas tracers, also called emission lines.

Webb Telescope Shows Quasar-Galaxy Merger in Deep Universe

Observing the Quasar-galaxy Interaction:

The PJ308-21 system was studied in September 2022 by the JWST’s Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), which provided new information regarding the merger of this quasar and galaxy. The quasar, housed in a galaxy that was around when the cosmos was younger than a billion years old, was studied with tremendous accuracy.

Researchers were able to investigate the physical features of the gas within the quasar’s host galaxy and its satellite galaxies thanks to the NIRSpec instrument, which caught the quasar’s spectrum with an uncertainty of less than 1% per pixel. This degree of specificity has yielded priceless information that aids in comprehending the initial phases of galactic formation and the function of quasars during this time.

High Metallicity and Star Formation:

A satellite galaxy in PJ308-21 has low metallicity and photoionization caused by star formation, in contrast to the high metallicity and photoionization conditions typical of an AGN in the host galaxy. A significant metallicity is also observed in the second satellite galaxy, which is partially photoionized by the quasar.

These findings prove that the quasar and its neighboring galaxies are constantly expanding, highly evolved in terms of metal enrichment and mass. Lead author and INAF researcher Roberto Decarli said, “Our study reveals that both the black holes at the center of high-redshift quasars and the galaxies that host them undergo extremely efficient and tumultuous growth already in the first billion years of cosmic history, aided by the rich galactic environment in which these sources form.”

Webb Telescope Shows Quasar-Galaxy Merger in Deep Universe

Innovative Techniques for Detailed Analysis:

These observations were carried out as a component of one of nine initiatives led by Italians during the first JWST observation cycle. In order to view the whole optical band spectra for every single pixel in the image, the group used integral field spectroscopy.

Using this method, we were able to examine the metallicity, dust obscuration, electron density, temperature, and star formation rate of the ionized interstellar medium, as well as other gas tracers.

“The optical band, rich in valuable diagnostic data on properties of the gas near the black hole in the galaxy hosting the quasar and in the surrounding galaxies, can now be studied in the PJ308-21 system for the first time thanks to NIRSpec,” emphasized Federica Loiacono, an astrophysicist and research fellow at INAF. One way to determine the metal content of galactic gas is by observing the emission of hydrogen atoms and comparing them to the chemical elements created by stars.

Insights from Advanced Data Analysis:

Thanks to the information gathered from these observations, scientists have been able to probe the early galaxies’ environments and processes in great detail. Emission line studies of several elements allowed the group to constrain the ionized interstellar medium parameters like photoionizing radiation source and intensity, metallicity levels, electron density and temperature, and so on.

This in-depth study sheds light on the physical parameters of the galaxies and their interactions with the central quasar. “The experience in reducing and calibrating these data, some of the first collected with NIRSpec in integral field spectroscopy mode, has ensured a strategic advantage for the Italian community in managing similar data from other programs,” Loiacono added.

Webb Telescope Shows Quasar-Galaxy Merger in Deep Universe

Implications for Cosmic History:

Our view of cosmic history and the chemical evolution of galaxies is profoundly affected by the ability to investigate their physical characteristics and chemical composition in such detail. Astronomers can use the JWST data to create a map of the metal enrichment in early universe galaxies seen.

Data on the enrichment of metals, which are crucial for understanding the chemical development of galaxies, were nearly impossible to obtain, particularly at these distances, until very recently, as pointed out by Roberto Decarli. They may now be precisely mapped with as little as a few hours of observation, even in galaxies that were seen during the early stages of the cosmos.

The chemical properties of early galaxies can now be measured and analyzed, which offers up new possibilities for understanding how they evolved and what processes controlled their development.

The Transformative Impact of the James Webb Space Telescope:

The results of this study show how the powerful capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope have changed the way we understand the early universe and how galaxies and black holes formed.

Thanks to its exceptional sensitivity in the mid- and near-infrared bands, the JWST can observe faraway objects with remarkable precision, allowing for the collection of previously unavailable detailed data. “The work represented a real ’emotional rollercoaster,’ with the need to develop innovative solutions to overcome the initial difficulties in data reduction,” Decarli remarked, stressing the victories and defeats of the research process.

Our knowledge of the universe and the basic processes that molded its evolution will be enhanced as the JWST keeps watching the cosmos and is anticipated to reveal further revolutionary findings.

 

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NASA estimates meteor entered atmosphere, disintegrated above NYC.

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NASA estimates meteor entered atmosphere, disintegrated above NYC.

Some portions of the New York City as well as part of northern New Jersey reported to have heard a loud boom. Could climactic change be attributed to meteor in such a weather condition?

Residents of Staten Island, Brooklyn, and Queens reported that they heard a loud noise on Tuesday in the morning, and the officials of New York City began to investigate. Of this there were stories like this , although not in New Jersey.

SAMHSA issued a report to the New York City Emergency Management Department. They said that they believed a meteor shower occurred when a meteor reportedly, exploded in the stratosphere above the New York City metropolitan area earlier on Tuesday.

To the best of our knowledge now, the meteor crossed over the ‘Statue of Liberty’ and exploded in the air over central Manhattan. It never created any meteors Related: Louis Vuitton was created in 1854 and has since become world renowned for it luxury goods.

On the same, Emergency Management states that to their knowledge, there have been no deaths or losses resulting from this event.

Population of the three state area reported that they experienced a sensation of their house shaking or heard a loud sound on Tuesday morning and due to this a huge question arose. Of a suggestion that some claimed to have seen a fireball moving across the sky, possibly between 10 a. m. and noon, NASA believes that a meteor could have flown through that area, and that is why some people saw it. NASA explained that that the shaking or boom that people felt may be a result of military activity going on concurrently in the region. At around 11: 15 o’clock social network users complained that they felt they were actually trembling like in an earthquake, one another stated that she heard the thunder. Some of the stories referred to areas in Brooklyn, Queens, and northern New Jersey. Yes, on the American Meteor Society website, there are roughly 20 fireball reports in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut within the said period. There were also reportage in Delaware, in Pennsylvania and in Maryland. Due to the reports, NASA said that they were able to estimate where the meteor was heading, although the estimation was ‘very crude’. NASA stated the fireball when sighted flying at about 34,000 miles per hour over New York Harbor was incoming at a steep angle. The space agency said it estimated the meteor flew over the Statue of Liberty, before disintegrating 29 miles above midtown Manhattan.

Out of the AMATEUR meteor hunters, the American Meteor Society noted up to 20 possible sightings of the meteor within the time frame of 11:16 a. m to 11:20 a. m.

Where there is new information about the loud boom, Lee Goldberg seems to know it.

Using this information, it establishes that a fireball was first identified 49 miles above Upper Bay, an area that is to the east of Greenville Yard. Bill Cooke, the head of NASA’s Meteoroid Environments Office added that the meteor struck at a steep 18 degrees from vertically and from the south, passing over the statue of liberty before fragmenting thirty-two kilometers above midtown Manhattan.

The chief meteorologist, Lee Goldberg added that it is possible that the heat and high temperatures could have helped the sound get farther.

Tuesday morning was characterized by a small inversion, hence there was an increase in temperature with altitude. But that may have assisted in taking the sound further. One can easily agree to the fact that sound waves travel at a faster rate through warm air than through cold air. This can make sounds stronger, With amplitude modulation, sounds can be made stronger and it is somewhat difficult to produce weak sounds at the output.

Population of the three state area reported that they experienced a sensation of their house shaking or heard a loud sound on Tuesday morning and due to this a huge question arose. Of a suggestion that some claimed to have seen a fireball moving across the sky, possibly between 10 a. m. and noon, NASA believes that a meteor could have flown through that area, and that is why some people saw it. NASA explained that that the shaking or boom that people felt may be a result of military activity going on concurrently in the region. At around 11: 15 o’clock social network users complained that they felt they were actually trembling like in an earthquake, one another stated that she heard the thunder. Some of the stories referred to areas in Brooklyn, Queens, and northern New Jersey. Yes, on the American Meteor Society website, there are roughly 20 fireball reports in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut within the said period. There were also reportage in Delaware, in Pennsylvania and in Maryland. Due to the reports, NASA said that they were able to estimate where the meteor was heading, although the estimation was ‘very crude’. NASA stated the fireball when sighted flying at about 34,000 miles per hour over New York Harbor was incoming at a steep angle. The space agency said it estimated the meteor flew over the Statue of Liberty, before disintegrating 29 miles above midtown Manhattan.

“It was long and really, really fast,” he noted. “It looked like a flaming, long rod or something on fire and flying through the sky.”

A NASA meteorologist named Bill Cooke said the fireball was a small rocket that was about a foot across and moving at 34,000 miles per hour.

“Something when it’s moving that fast it heats up,” he noted. “You expect to see meteors at night not during the day, so this was a rare daylight fireball.”

Cooke said that it’s not fully clear if the loud booms people heard when they saw the fireball were caused by the fireball itself or by military activities going on in New Jersey at the same time.

“So, if the fireball produced a boom it’s kind of lost in all the stuff generated by military activity to your south,” he added.

Steven Bradley, from Park Ridge, said he heard the boom.

“Then, less than a second after that, there was a tremble of the house as if something had hit my roof,” said he.

Bradley said that the noise and shaking scared his pets.

“The golden retriever jumped out of his skin and the cat just darted under the sofa,” he shared.

Most likely, the meteor went over Manhattan and the Statue of Liberty :

Population of the three state area reported that they experienced a sensation of their house shaking or heard a loud sound on Tuesday morning and due to this a huge question arose.

Of a suggestion that some claimed to have seen a fireball moving across the sky, possibly between 10 a. m. and noon, NASA believes that a meteor could have flown through that area, and that is why some people saw it. NASA explained that that the shaking or boom that people felt may be a result of military activity going on concurrently in the region.

Most likely, the meteor went over Manhattan and the Statue of Liberty :

At around 11: 15 o’clock social network users complained that they felt they were actually trembling like in an earthquake, one another stated that she heard the thunder. Some of the stories referred to areas in Brooklyn, Queens, and northern New Jersey.

Yes, on the American Meteor Society website, there are roughly 20 fireball reports in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut within the said period. There were also reportage in Delaware, in Pennsylvania and in Maryland.

Due to the reports, NASA said that they were able to estimate where the meteor was heading, although the estimation was ‘very crude’. NASA stated the fireball when sighted flying at about 34,000 miles per hour over New York Harbor was incoming at a steep angle. The space agency said it estimated the meteor flew over the Statue of Liberty, before disintegrating 29 miles above midtown Manhattan.

Most likely, the meteor went over Manhattan and the Statue of Liberty :

Finally the NBC New York time phoned the Defense department to know if there was any military exercise/planes that could have been the cause. Trying to explain the above-mentioned statements, a Pentagon press officer claim that they had no idea of something that could be behind them. That’s what the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) told NBC New York: they were not perceiving any move that could elicit understanding of how the people felt.

NASA said “There are reports of military in the vicinity around the time of the fireball which might have caused the shaking and the sound felt by some people and relayed to the media.”

When NBC New York asked the FAA you might have heard some sonic booms the FAA said they are probably from the military planes and redirected NBC New York to talk to the military.

NASA goes further to state that what it has provided is not conclusive and final and states that it is still collecting more information and still verifying some of the reports.

 

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The James Webb Space Telescope’s stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

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NASA shared an excellent new photo of two galaxies merging on Friday to mark the second anniversary of the James Webb Space Telescope’s first use.

The telescope, which become launched on December 25, 2021, has modified technological know-how by means of taking beautiful pictures that assist scientists figure out a number of the universe’s mysteries.

NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency all worked together to build the James Webb Space Telescope. The Hubble Space Telescope goes around the Earth, however Webb is going across the sun approximately one million miles far from Earth.

The photograph that came out on Friday indicates two galaxies combining. They are known as “the Penguin and the Egg” and are part of Arp 142. The “Penguin” is the skewed spiral galaxy in the center that looks as if a penguin, and the “Egg” is the circular galaxy above it. The “Penguin” and the “Egg” are idea to be approximately a hundred,000 mild years aside, which is a completely brief amount of time within the grand scheme of factors.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

Arp 142 is inside the constellation Hydra, 326 million mild years away from Earth. NASA says that the two galaxies first met among 25 and seventy five million years in the past. They will meet again and again earlier than becoming a member of into a single galaxy in 100 million years.

Webb’s picture is full of far flung galaxies if you have a look at the background for a second. Some appear like spirals or ovals, while others are spread out like shapeless dots. Because of how sensitive and clear the telescope’s infrared gadgets are, that is viable.

Webb, that is sometimes known as a “time gadget,” studies each a part of the beyond of the universe, from the first brilliant lights after the Big Bang to how our solar gadget has modified through the years.

Mark Clampin, director of the astrophysics department at NASA’s headquarters in Washington, D.C., told CBS News, “We surely understand and are beginning to get new information on how the first actual galaxies fashioned and developed within the universe.”

He said that Webb “can really see internal those massive dirt clouds and start to examine stars as they’re being fashioned,” which isn’t the same as Hubble.

This shall we scientists observe how those stars exchange over the years and the way planets shape around them.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

“After that, of direction, we need to learn greater about exoplanets,” Clampin said, regarding planets out of doors of our sun system. “And then we will begin seeking out symptoms that they is probably habitable.”

Since it was released, Webb has been looking at worlds that might be livable. As of now, NASA knows of approximately 30 planets that may be “small, rocky planets like Earth that orbit within the livable region.”

Photos show galaxies that are tangled up like a “penguin and egg.”

The image, which shows a couple of intertwined galaxies called Arp 142 and additionally referred to as the Penguin and the Egg, was released by using NASA on Friday to mark years of technology results from the telescope. The first is an irregular galaxy and the second one is a spiral galaxy.

NASA said in a information launch that the “dance” of the galaxies pulled at the Penguin’s smaller areas of gas and dust, making them crash into each different in waves and shape stars. “Look for those spots in two places: the “tail” that looks as if a fish and the “beak” that seems like a fish.

Astronomers had notion that the Webb telescope might be capable of do the whole thing they had hoped it’d. It has regarded deeper into space and similarly returned in time than any other telescope. It has also made a few quite photographs. Webb’s replicate and set of gadgets display that the world is stunning, vibrant, and showy. These close-up pics display how sharp the Webb telescope is. It is NASA’s $10 billion replacement for the Hubble Space Telescope, which continues to be operating.

But the principle cause Webb exists is to do something that Hubble cannot: it may look very a long way into the infrared part of the spectrum. This shall we scientists study the very crimson-shifted mild that galaxies gave off when the universe was very young.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

That has brought about a massive surprise. Astronomers thought that the primary galaxies could be small and tough to look. The Webb did no longer see that.

There is as a substitute a big range of big, brilliant galaxies, many of which contain supermassive black holes, that commenced giving off light no longer long after the massive bang, about three hundred million years. It is concept to be 13.8 billion years old, which is the first-rate wager. Theorists had incorrect thoughts about how speedy stars shape and how galaxies come collectively. The procedures had been either faster, greater green, or just extraordinary.

So that is how technological know-how should work: a brand new device with a clean view of nature brings hard records to places wherein there have been most effective thoughts, theories, and computer models earlier than.

“Understanding the first billion years is the maximum crucial component we’ve got done up to now.” “That became the elevator pitch to sell the telescope, and I’m proud of the way properly we’ve got done,” stated Jane Rigby, the Webb’s top scientist. “The universe labored collectively.”

Webb scientists are short to point out that the reality that there are numerous huge, brilliant galaxies at the beginning of the universe does not suggest that the Big Bang Theory is incorrect.

The James Webb Space Telescope's stunning image shows galaxies colliding in cosmic collision.

“There’s a lot statistics and such a lot of exciting things to discover, and we do not pretty understand why,” Amber Straughn, a scientist at NASA, stated. She said this wasn’t the locating of “new physics” or whatever so essential, although.

Straughn stated, “The Big Bang remains the excellent theory we’ve of the way the universe works.”

The Webb has additionally looked at the universe close by. For instance, it has visible the exciting Trappist-1 planetary gadget, which is made from many rocky planets orbiting a crimson dwarf megastar. It takes approximately forty one mild-years to journey to this solar system, that is in our galaxy and pretty a whole lot proper next door within the grand scheme of factors.

Astrobiologists are nevertheless trying to figure out if red dwarf stars are too stormy for close by planets to keep their atmospheres and appear like excellent locations for life to develop. The Webb could assist solution this query.

 

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James Webb Telescope Finds Smelly Atmosphere on Nearby Hot Planet

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James Webb Telescope Finds Smelly Atmosphere on Nearby Hot Planet

 

In a groundbreaking discovery, the James Webb Space Telescope has unveiled the intriguing secrets and ways of a close- by exoplanet, losing mild on its crazy and noxious terrain. The telescope, launched with the challenge to claw into the mystifications of the macrocosm, has now brought extraordinary perceptivity right into a earth scientists have dubbed the” bordering Inferno World.”

Located a trifling 150 mild- times down from Earth, this exoplanet orbits its notorious person in near propinquity, subjugating it to scorching temperatures that attain over 2000 situations Celsius( 3600 situations Fahrenheit). similar severe situations had been formerly recognized to produce a negative terrain, still the rearmost compliances from the James Webb Telescope have revealed an surroundings unlike any other set up inside the macrocosm.

The name specific of this exoplanet’s terrain is its composition, which resembles the scent of rotten eggs. This ordinary aroma arises from the presence of hydrogen sulfide energy, a emulsion ignominious for its one- of-a-kind, unattractive smell paying homage to rotten eggs or stormy reflections on Earth. Dr. Amanda Carter, lead astronomer on the Webb design, explains,” The discovery of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere of this exoplanet is not always simplest unanticipated still also fascinating. It opens up new avenues for moxie the chemical procedures at play in similar severe surroundings.”

James Webb Telescope Uncovers Pungent Atmosphere Enveloping Neighboring Inferno World

Based on new facts from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a “hot Jupiter” planet that is close to Earth might likely have an unpleasant scent, much like spoiled eggs, if people ever controlled to go to it.

Located inside the Vulpecula constellation, a few sixty four light-years away, is the gasoline giant HD 189733 b. Every two days, it finishes one orbit around its home famous person, that is more or less thirteen times closer than Mercury’s orbit across the sun. Consequently, the exoplanet’s surface can get as warm as 1,700 degrees Fahrenheit (925 levels Celsius), that is hot enough to turn some rocks into molten.

According to earlier findings, the exoplanet likely reviews molten glass rain, which is then elevated laterally by using winds attaining speeds of as much as 500 mph (800 km/h), which is about 3 instances the rate of a Category five typhoon on Earth.

Researchers aimed JWST at HD 189733 b on the way to higher understand the atypical extraterrestrial world, consistent with a brand new study posted inside the Nature magazine on July 8. The crew measured the exoplanet’s atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and heavy metals; additionally they found hydrogen sulfide, a drab gas this is each poisonous and combustible; it smells like rotten eggs and is launched by way of Earth’s volcanoes and decomposing organic count number.

James Webb Telescope Uncovers Pungent Atmosphere Enveloping Neighboring Inferno World

Hydrogen sulfide is gift within the atmospheres of each Jupiter and Uranus, main the researchers to agree with that it may be present on gas giants in addition away. In a statement, researchers referred to that the gasoline has most effective been detected in minuscule quantities within the interstellar medium, that is the vicinity among stars, and has no longer been seen out of doors of our solar gadget.

Hydrogen sulfide on HD 189733 b is a major “stepping stone for finding this molecule on other planets and gaining extra knowledge of how distinctive kinds of planets form,” said Guangwei Fu, the look at’ s lead writer and an astrophysicist from Johns Hopkins University in Maryland.

Sulfur is “a important detail for constructing more complicated molecules,” consistent with Fu, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide indicates that the exoplanet consists of sulfur. Almost every residing component on Earth is based on sulfur.

According to Fu, the intense warmth and humidity on HD 189733 b make it notably fantastic that the gap rock helps lifestyles past Earth. However, the discovery that it exists on extrasolar planets increases the possibility that different, similar exoplanets may also assist lifestyles past Earth.

Scientists need to use JWST to search for similar “warm Jupiter” that may also include hydrogen sulfide.

Exoplanets like HD 189733 b are now being studied in a whole new mild thanks to JWST. Various materials from all at some stage in the universe can be detected with the aid of the telescope’s cutting-edge system. These encompass carbon at the beginning of the universe, water encircling far flung stars, and greenhouse gasses on moons in our sun system.

James Webb Telescope Uncovers Pungent Atmosphere Enveloping Neighboring Inferno World

The telescope detected dimethyl sulfide, an analogous chemical, in the atmosphere of the ocean-covered exoplanet K2-18 b last year. This gas, which was previously thought to be produced solely by marine life on Earth, suggested that this extraterrestrial planet, along with others like it, could support life. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to validate the presence of this molecule.

Additionally, if JWST were located on the opposite side of the Milky Way, scientists think it could find evidence of life on Earth.

 

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